PAGES 321-379:


The Constitution, being adopted by the General Synod, was consigned for publication to the Committee which had digested it; and the same was published under the inspection of Doctor Livingston. Under date of May 4th, 1793, he wrote to Dr. R. as follows: "I wish it was in my power to send you a copy of our Church Orders. They are in the press, and have been so for some weeks; but the printer, as usual, goes on slowly. I have thought it would be proper to insert after the articles of faith and catechism, the Canones Synodi Dort Our young candidates subscribe them; and they ought to be well acquainted with them. Perhaps also a public testimony in favour of the peculiar doctrines of grace at this day, may be very proper not only, but even necessary. Pray is it your idea, that we should omit in the Church Orders of Dort: the particular phrases which express what relates io the magistrate? or must we in the translation put every word that is found in the original? There is a note in the explanatory articles, which declares that we have omitted those peculiarities, and, in the preface, it can also be mentioned. Upon the whole, I think it will not only be more intelligible to our people, if we leave those parts out; but it will spare a number of apologies and explanations, we shall be for ever obliged to be making."

In a letter of June, 1793, he informed him that the work was going on, and far advanced, and then added "I hope it will be executed in an acceptable manner. Some of the Anabaptists, in a letter, have expressed their uneasiness at the harsh expressions in our articles of faith respecting them. The people meant in those articles were then called Anabaptists; but those who now pass by that name, do not hold such sentiments. Notice must be taken of that in the preface: I wish a note had been added at the foot of the article, for it is not our design to give offence; but the articles are already stuck off."

The publication of the work was completed soon after, and in the preface, he inserted a paragraph explanatory of the terms which had been considered objectionable and injurious to the character of the Baptist denomination, as known in this country.

The Doctor watched over the Church, as a tender and faithful parent watches over a beloved child: and, the relation which he sustained to her, as the professor of theology, gave him a kind of paternal influence in all her concerns. It was not viewed as indelicate obtrusion in him to offer his advice, though it were not expressly solicited, upon any question of general importance, or likely to affect in the issue, the welfare of the Church: That was, in fact, his prerogative, seemingly by common consent, on account of his station and eminent personal qualities; and he would, whenever the occasion was such as to require it, promptly and without reserve, yet modestly or without assuming authority, exert himself to prevent, if possible, an apprehended evil.

The Trustees of Queen's College had, the preceding year, with the approbation of the General Synod, made some attempts in the Churches to increase the funds of their Institution; but these attempts proving only partially successful, they became discouraged and desirous, it would seem, to rid themselves of a charge, which had hitherto continually disappointed their hopes, and involved them in trouble. A plan was now conceived for forming a union with the College at Princeton, and an overture with this intention, was actually submitted to the Trustees of that College. When information of these facts reached New-York, the Doctor, with many others, was thrown into a state of painful anxiety, and felt much alarmed for the mischief which he foresaw a measure so unadvised would, if pursued, inevitably produce. A meeting of the Trustees being called shortly after, to deliberate and decide upon the whole business, at the request of Dr. Linn, he presented a full expression of his opinion in writing which, it is presumed, that gentleman read at the board. The paper containing this opinion was enclosed in the following letter

" My dear Colleague,
" Agreeably to your request, I have committed to writing my sentiments upon the proposed union between Brunswick and Princeton. It was impossible to communicate what I suppose to be the public opinion respecting this business, without being prolix upon some points. As you wished for full information, you will readily excuse the length of the enclosed. I need not tell you that I am perfectly indifferent, as to myself, and feel wholly independent of any consequences which may arise from the issue of this question, be the determination whatever it may. But, I acknowledge myself greatly concerned for the Church of Christ, and am a sincere friend to both Colleges. From the enlarged and proper views you have of this matter, I am confident you will bring conviction to those who have hitherto considered the subject in a different light. I wish you may be an instrument, in this instance also, of doing great good for Zion. Be assured of my esteem, and sincere respect, and affection, and that I am ever

"Totus tuus,

"J. H. Livingston "October 25, 1793."

The paper is headed "Observations upon the Overture respecting an Union between the College at Brunswick, and that at Princeton;" and commences thus: "It is reported that the Trustees of the College at Brunswick, have appointed a Committee to meet with a Committee from the College at Princeton, in order to devise a plan for uniting those two institutions. That the two Committees have met and formed a plan; the outlines of which are, that both the Colleges shall surrender their charters, and obtain one new charter, which shall establish the College at Princeton, comprehend the funds of both, and increase the number of Trustees, the one half of which shall be from among the Trustees of each College, respectively; and that an academy shall be erected at Brunswick, under the immediate care and patronage of the Trustees."

The paper is too long to be inserted entire, but a few extracts will show the manner in which he treated the subject. In the introduction he says, "When proposals, which comprehend objects of such magnitude are under consideration, it becomes the duty of every person, who is capable of throwing light upon the subject, to examine with candour, the proposed plan, and point out the train of consequences, which will inevitably succeed, if wrong measures should be pursued. It is no reflection upon the most respectable characters, however exalted and justly revered they may be for their integrity and information, to suppose there may be some things which may have escaped their notice, and which, if pointed out, with due deference, they will cheerfully attend to. It is not the intention of the writer of these observations, to call in question the principles or conduct of any concerned, in the overture now before the public. He knows the persons to be men of honour and conscience, and is convinced that they aim at the glory of God and the good of mankind; but he is equally convinced that the subject has not been thoroughly investigated, nor the nature and effects of the plan fully examined. He needs no apology for the freedom he takes. He is conscious of his benevolence, and knows he is actuated by a sincere and disinterested desire of preventing good men from doing, what, in the issue, may prove an irremediable evil. With the utmost plainness and candour, therefore, he will first examine whether the steps already taken, and the plan proposed by the Trustees of Queen's College, in their late overture, are justifiable and ought to be pursued. And then if it shall appear the plan is impracticable, point out what can and ought to be done, to answer the design of the Institution, and meet the expectation and wishes of its friends and patrons." These, and a few more conciliatory remarks being made, he glances at the manner in which the business had been conducted thus far, and then particularly considers the plan proposed.

His arguments against the adoption of the plan are irresistibly conclusive. He proves, in the first place, that "Two Institutions seated at a distance from each other, and supported by different interests, can never be united. The funds of one may be given away to the other; but to call that a union, would be an abuse of language." In the second place, that "admitting an union with Princeton to be possible, admitting the Trustees possess a power in law to surrender their charter, and give away their funds to any person or institution they may choose," it would be, nevertheless, very improper for them to do so, and would involve a violation of solemn obligations. At the close of this argument, he observes, "When Hackensack repeatedly offered to give several thousand pounds, if the College might be moved to that place, it was always strenuously objected by the Trustees, that such removal was impracticable; that it would be a betraying of the public trust and confidence; that the moneys had been expressly given in the expectation of their being expended in Brunswick, and that therefore, no temptation or offer, could justify them in removing the institution. But, if a bare removal, when the charter, the nature of the College, and its patrons still remained the same, would operate to a betraying of the pubhc faith, what must be thought, and what will be thought, of a plan which effects, not only a removal, but an alienation of the funds, with the total extinction of the charter, and all the hopes and expectations of its friends and benefactors?"

In discussing the second thing "What can and ought to be done to answer the design of the institution?" he says, "That the charter of Queen's College was obtained by the immediate agency and influence of several pious ministers, and members of the Dutch Church, with a particular design of rendering it subservient to a regular theological education, and to prepare young men for the ministry of the Gospel. That while in its first organization, from a want of competent funds, attention was only paid to the usual studies pursued in other Colleges, yet the main object was never lost sight of by its well-informed friends and benefactors. That Queen's College was early recommended to the Synod of the Dutch Churches, as an institution immediately adapted and intended to supply the wants of the Churches, and was warmly and uniformly patronised by the Synod for that very purpose, as appears by a variety of minutes entered, year after year, upon their records: the late efforts made by the Synod in its behalf, prove that the Dutch Churches, notwithstanding the backwardness of some of the Trustees to meet the wishes of the Churches in their favourite object, still retained their attachment to the College, and still cherished a confidence that the Trustees would ultimately co-operate in rendering Queen's College particularly useful, for the very end for which the charter was obtained. That while Brunswick yields from necessity, as well as principle, to Princeton, and cheerfully consents to let that elder and very respectable institution continue the unrivalled seat of literature, Queen's College can yet, with propriety and dignity, prosecute that other end which was expressly contemplated from the beginning. So far, then, from annihilating the charter, or taking steps which distress the public mind and create new feuds, let the charter and the trustees remain without any alteration, as they now are: if nothing was in prospect, it would still be advisable to keep the whole in being: let it rather lie dormant until something can be done, but let it not be prematurely slain."

"But something can be done; the very thing for which the charter was obtained is now within the reach of the Trustees. Let a Divinity Hall be erected, and the funds at Brunswick be immediately and solely applied to the support of as many professors in theology, as shall be found necessary and practicable."

"The execution of this plan can be effected independently of any union, either nominal or real, with any other institution, and will undoubtedly operate best, when least entangled with collateral stipulations. But if any fraternal overtures can be devised, which will extinguish former jealousies, and promote mutual confidence with Princeton, it may not only be very desirable in the first instance, but may eventually produce an intercourse and affection, which will promote the common interests of truth and religion, and finally bring the Presbyterian and Dutch Churches much nearer to each other, than any forced measures and unpopular plans can possibly effect. The College at Brunswick may, perhaps safely engage with that at Princeton, to drop the whole under-graduate education, and give no degrees of Bachelor or Master, but always recommend the students from their Academy to Princeton: The Trustees of the latter may engage to appoint no professor in theology, but to acquiesce in the professorate established by the Trustees in Brunswick, with the approbation of the Synod of the Dutch Churches, and to recommend their students in theology always to Brunswick. Both may unite to promote the interests of both, and mutually endeavour to increase the funds of each other for the respective objects they pursue."

These extracts are sufficient to exhibit the drift of this communication. In a letter to Dr. T. Romeyn, dated January 21st, 1794, he says, "You have no doubt heard that, at a meeting of the Trustees of Brunswick College, the overtures presented by a committee, respecting an union with Princeton, were rescinded, in consequence of which, the affairs of that Institution are reverted to, or rather continue in, their former state. What the Trustees will next resolve, I do not know, nor do I believe they know themselves. I have understood from some of them, that they expect the Synod will give them advice, or make some proposals to them; but I have seen only one or two of them: what the sentiments of the board, or the majority of them are, I do not know. Whether they will not let the whole lie dormant, and nurse their fund until some future day, or whether they will still try to do something is, I believe, uncertain; and by, what I can learn, no particular plan is as yet formed by them."

Such, then, was the termination of an affair which, at the time, awakened a good deal of feeling in the Church; and it is not improbable that, for that termination, the Church is much indebted to the seasonable and cogent remonstrance of the Doctor, supported and enforced, as it no doubt was, by the powerful eloquence of Dr. Linn.

No man could be more scrupulously attentive than the Doctor was, to all the important duties of private life. In his conduct in his family, he afforded, at all times, a pattern of the tender charities of husband, father, master, friend. The order, peace, and love, always visible in his house, and the affectionate respect with which every member of it uniformly treated him, could scarcely fail to convince any guest who partook of his hospitality, of the habitual piety and gentleness of his deportment. And, indeed, it would be easy to furnish from some of his letters to his friends, written about this time, were it necessary, pleasing and satisfactory evidence that he was amiable in every domestic relation. In almost every one, the kind concern which he felt for his family is apparent; but in those particularly, penned when either Mrs. Livingston, or his son, were considered seriously indisposed, it is plain that both the mother and the child were the objects of an unceasing and most tender solicitude, and yet that the strength of natural affection, and the influence of Christian principle, were at once in his heart, in harmonious operation.

The city of New-York had been, for several years, blessed with the ministrations of a number of pious, orthodox, excellent servants of Christ, who were remarkable as well for their reverend simplicity and dignity of manners, as for their zeal and faithfulness in the work of their Master.

One of these ministerial fathers, the Rev. Doctor John Mason of the Associate Reformed Church, had lately died,

[This eminent divine was a native of Scotland: settled in New-York in 1761, and died in 1792. He has been represented to the writer, by those who knew him well,and often attended his Church, to have been a person of extraordinary judgment, extensive learning, fervent piety, and singular modesty. It has been said that when he preached, he fixed his eyes upon some object before him, and rarely moved them till he closed his discourse.

The late Dr. Linn, in his Signs of the Times, thus speaks of him in a note:

"I shall be excused here in paying a small tribute of respect to the memory of a man who was my neighbour and my friend; whom I knew too late; and of whose value I was hardly sensible until I experienced his loss. He had prudence without cunning, cheerfulness without levity, dignity without pride, friendship without ceremony, charity without undue latitude, and religion without ostentation. The congregation which he served have erected a handsome monument to his memory; but the most honourable monument, is the place he holds in their hearts, and the lasting esteem of all who knew him." Page 143.]

and those now remaining were Doctor Rodgers of the Presbyterian;

[The Memoir of the late Rev. John Rodgers, D. D., from the able pen of the Rev. Dr. Miller, in an octavo volume of about 400 pages, is well known to the Christian public; and it presents a faithful portrait of its venerable subject. More cannot be said of him, than is so well and justly said by his respected biographer; and the writer, therefore, will only observe here, as a small proof of his own affectionate and grateful remembrance of one who was to him both a friend and a father, that he was truly a man jull of faith and of the Holy Ghost; greatly beloved, and eminently useful in the Church of Christ, through a long and active life. There never was, perhaps, a minister in New-York, and rarely in any other place, more conspicuous for all that can constitute sterling excellence, or who possessed a larger share of the confidence, love, and veneration of the Christian community. His praise is still in all the Churches.]

Doctor Kunzie* of the Lutheran;

[The Rev. John Christopher Kunzie, D. D. was a native of the village of Artern, in Saxony, and born in 1744. After spending seven years at the University of Leipzig, he came over to America, in 1770, and took charge of a Lutheran congregation in Philadelphia. He was chosen in 1780, a professor of the University, and a member of the Philosophical Society in that city. In 1784, shortly after the war, he settled in New-York. He was a divine of profound erudition, and esteemed one of the best Hebrecians of the day. For several years, he was professor of Oriental languages in Columbia College. His piety was undoubted, and his ministerial labours were highly acceptable to the large and respectable Lutheran congregation in this city, which he served until his death. Between him and Dr. L., a sincere and warm friendship was long maintained, and whenever they met, they embraced each other, a mode of salutation which, it is believed, is common between males as well as females, in the continental parts of Europe. Both Dr. L. and Dr. R. visited this excellent man in his last sickness. The first gentleman, at one of his visits, put a question, to which the answer was returned, "the Saviour is precious to me;" and the second was much gratified, when he called one day, to hear him express his views of divine truth, which were fully evangelical. He died July, 1807.]

...and Doctor Livingston of the Reformed Dutch, Church. With the first in his life time, and with the other two until their decease, Doctor L cultivated a cordial and unreserved intimacy. He esteemed and loved them all as his brethren in Christ; and there never were, perhaps, four ministers residing in the same city, each belonging to a different denomination of Christians, who afforded in their fraternal and pious intercourse, a happier exhibition of the influence of that heavenly charity, which accompanies the exercise of a genuine faith and hope.

The Doctor, as has been already more than once intimated, was naturally a sociable person; and a large circle of other than ministerial friends, at this time, claimed and received his friendly attentions. And it ought to be remarked, that he seldom paid a visit, whether of a pastoral or merely of a social kind, but he endeavoured to render his conversation profitable to all around him, or to intermingle with it some pious and weighty observations, in a manner so impressive, that they could not be soon forgotten. Indeed, the narrative of this part of his life would be very deficient, if it did not notice the pains he took, particularly with youth, whether of his own church or not, at every suitable opportunity, to make some salutary and lasting impression upon their minds; and in doing this, few men could be more successful.

A letter to him from the late celebrated Lindley Murray, and another from his brother John, both, when living, distinguished members of the Society of Friends, relating to interviews with him, which it is supposed occurred soon after the war, are worthy of being here inserted. They are honourable memorials of departed excellence, and they will serve to show how the Doctor usually employed a portion of the time which was given to company.

The letter of Lindley Murray is in these words: "I beg that Dr. Livingston will do me the favour to accept a copy of the new edition of my Enghsh Grammar, as a small mark of the high esteem and regard which I have long entertained for him. I still remember, with grateful emotion, the short interview which I had with Dr. Livingston, about twenty years ago. The affectionate inquiries which he then made respecting my health, his Christian temper and deportment, and the unfeigned piety of his remark, "that as all our blessings come from the Fountain of Goodness, they ought to be received with correspondent gratitude," left a most pleasing and consolatory impression, which, I believe, will never be effaced from my recollection."

"Since that period, it has pleased Divine Providence to visit me with a very gentle affliction, if it can be called an affliction at all, when so many blessings are continued: I have not been able to walk, or to use any exercise, except that of riding in a carriage. I am, however, comforted in believing that my life, in this confinement, has not been entirely useless. I have composed a number of little volumes for the benefit of the rising generation; and the success which has attended these publications, affords me much comfort, and abundant cause of thankfulness, to the great Preserver of my life.

"I am, with great respect and affection,
"Dr. Livingston's very sincere friend,


"Holdgate, near York,
Great-Britain, 1805.

His brother's letter is of a later date, and it concludes as follows: "Almost as long as I have any clear recollection of occurrences in my juvenile days, I remember my friend. Doctor Livingston. Even the simple circumstance of his putting his hands occasionally on my Head, in a pleasant manner, when we used to meet at our old neighbour Kipp's, at Kipp's Bay: Since which I have entertained a regard for thee, and may now say, I renewedly feel my mind impressed with a solicitude for thy welfare in time, and for thy happiness in futurity. May thy setting sun go down with increased brightness, is the sincere desire of,

"Thy well-wishing friend,

These expressions of respect have been transcribed, to give the reader an idea of what was the Doctor's usual way of improving time in private intercourse with his friends, and of his peculiar faculty to conciliate the esteem of young persons, and to rivet in their minds instructive or pointed apothegms.

Men engaged in public life frequently complain of indisposition, but while they appear to be tolerably well, or continue to discharge their duties, their complaints are but little heeded by many, or excite but little sympathy. The effect which those anxieties, produced by certain domestic circumstances, or by their official responsibilities, or as is sometimes the case, by both together not to mention their labours, can have upon the best human constitution, is not considered. Their anxieties and their labours are scarcely thought of and that is laughed at, as a mere imaginary or vaporish affection, which is, in fact, a real indisposition, and without due care, may terminate in some dangerous disease. The Doctor rarely knew what it was to be in perfect health, or entirely free from ailment: the pressure of his numerous cares and employments, of a public and private nature, he often felt very sensibly to be too great for his strength: he was at times much debilitated, and afflicted with a pain in his breast; but the Lord enabled him to hold on his work, and he was seldom so very unwell as to be compelled to intermit his regular service in the pulpit.

About the close of 1792, his labours were considerably augmented, in consequence of the serious indisposition of his colleague, Dr. Linn, who was threatened with pulmonic disease, and obliged, therefore, for a season, to desist from preaching. In a letter to Dr. R , of January, 1793, he thus noticed the occurrence: "May the Lord Jesus become more precious to your soul, and you rejoice in a full assurance of his love! With respect to myself, I bless his holy name, I am strengthened in weakness, and enabled to hold on, with a desire to be found faithful until death. I am sorry to inform you, that my dear colleague, Linn, has some very unfavourable symptoms, which have greatly alarmed us. About four weeks ago, he began to spit some blood mixed with his saliva. This is considered by his physicians as an intimation of an approaching consumption, and requires great attention and care. He has not preached since the first appearance of that symptom; and it is to be feared he will not preach in some length of time. What the consequence will be, cannot be foreseen, but it is conjectured his future health and labours are very precarious."

In another, dated May 4th, 1793, to the same, he observed "I have had very steady, and considerable heavy service, the whole winter and spring. Dr. Linn expects to preach to-morrow morning, for the first time, since the beginning of last December." In another of May 11th: "My labours, the winter and spring past, have been increased and uniform, without any intermission. Last Lord's-day, Dr. Linn preached for the first time. His health appears to be restored, and I hope there is a prospect of his doing well, without any danger of relapses." And again, in one written the following August: " greatly sympathize with the destitute congregations, and trust the Lord will send labourers in his harvest soon, to supply our numerous vacancies. There are five or six now with me, who are diligent in their studies, and of whom we may hope much good. I most sincerely wish it was in my power to do greater justice to them; but, while incumbered with the full weight of the parochialia, it is utterly impossible. [His other colleague (Dr. Kuypers) at this time preached only in the Dutch language.] Perhaps it may please the Lord to direct, in his good providence, and in his own time, what shall answer our desire."

It was impossible for him, in present circumstances, to give that attention to professoral duties, which his own sense of their intrinsic importance, and a due regard to the improvement of the young gentlemen under his care, prompted him to render: and the General Synod, at length, became convinced that it was necessary to adopt some measures, that would place their professor in a situation to be more devoted to the appropriate business of his office. Accordingly, at a meeting of the Synod, held in Albany, June, 1794, the subject of the Professorate was taken into serious consideration, and a committee, of which Dr. T. Romeyn was chairman, was appointed, "to consult and report upon the same." The report submitted was adopted by the Synod, and shall be presented here without abridgement. It was as follows:

"1. That it is high time to bring this important matter to a conclusion. Ten years have elapsed since the professor was appointed, and no effective arrangements have yet been made to enable him to fulfil the duties of his appointment. The place where the Divinity-Hall is to be opened; the salary to be allowed the professor; and some productive measures to ensure a sufficient fund, ought, without further delay, to be now determined."

"2. That to establish an union of the professorate with Queen's College, which has hitherto been judged practicable and advisable, it is the opinion of the Committee, that it will be necessary to remove the College from its present situation, and bring it to some place more accessible, and nearer to the great body of the churches, which lie in the northern parts of the State of New-York: your Committee, therefore, recommend, that it should be fixed at the town of Bergen, or at such other place, still farther to the North, in the State of New-Jersey, as may be agreed upon between the Trustees of the College and the General Synod."

"3. That to effect this removal of the College, a Committee be appointed on the part of this General Synod, to confer with the Trustees of the College, and endeavour to persuade them to: relinquish the present place in which the College is fixed, and to meet the wishes of the General Synod, in a location that will be more commodious for the benefit of the Churches."

"4. That as the overtures made to the Trustees of the College may prove unsuccessful, the General Synod ought now to determine that, in such case, the place where the Divinity-Hall must be opened, without being connected with any college whatever, shall be in the vicinity of the city of New York; where the students may find all the benefits of cheapness and retirement, peculiar to a village, and yet be sufficiently near to the metropolis to derive all the advantages, arising from a free and easy intercourse with the literary and public characters, which abound in a city."

"5. That your Committee, after mature consideration, are of opinion, that the town of Flatbush, upon Long Island, is a proper place where the Divinity-Hall may be opened; and, therefore, recommend the same to Synod for that purpose. A flourishing Academy is there estabUshed, which will afford an opportunity for the students in theology to revise their other studies, and advance in collateral branches of education; and Flatbush comprises all the advantages resulting from a village situated near a city."

"6. That in the present situation of the professorate, while the Synod is destitute of funds to render their appointment independent, and while the professor remains in any measure connected with the congregation at New-York, means should be used to prevail upon that Consistory and congregation, to consent to a dispensation of a part of the parochial duties of the professor, and to obtain from them, for the benefit of all the churches, that he shall be held to preach only once on every Lord's-day, and attend the consistorial meetings, when necessary and convenient; but that the remainder of his time and labour, which may be four days in every week, shall be by him devoted to the immediate business of his appointment, as professor in theology."

"7. That for this purpose, a committee be also appointed, to confer with the professor and the Consistory of the Church at New-York, and to make such arrangements with the said Consistory, in relation to the salary of the professor, as shall be honourable and equitable."

"8. That upon settling what may be necessary with the congregation of New-York, the professor be requested to embrace the first prudent measures of retirement to any place contiguous to the said city, which he may judge most convenient and eligible, for prosecuting the important purposes of the professorate, as long as he remains connected with the ministerial duties in the city; and that the Synod engage to give him all their support and countenance; while they strenuously, in the mean time, exert themselves to obtain the means for fixing him in a proper and independent manner, at the place determined on as the most suitable for a Divinity-Hall."

"9. That the General Synod do immediately, and without delay, take the most effectual measures for raising a fund, to render their professorate independent of any particular or individual congregation; and for that purpose, the committee recommend, that the former resolution respecting collections to be made in all the Churches, and which was revived in the last particular Synod, be now adopted and made to originate, with renewed vigour, from this General Synod; with this variation only, that instead of constituting the Consistory of New-York the keepers of the fund to be raised, there be three persons joined with Mr. Peter Wilson, who shall be Trustees for that purpose, until some other measures be adopted by the General Synod, for rendering the agency in that business more safe and easy."

"10. That as it is the object and wish of the Synod, to obtain the assistance of more than one professor, as soon as the Churches shall put it in the power of Synod to maintain more, so the committee recommend, that this be held up to the public view, as an inducement to increase the funds, and render them productive for supporting not only one, but a sufficient number, if possible, to constitute a faculty of theology."

"11. As it appears from a representation made to this General Synod, by a committee from the Trustees of Queen's College, that no union of that institution with the Trustees of Princeton College, has taken place, or will probably be ever again attempted, the committee recommend, that the act of the last particular Synod, prohibiting the payment of certain moneys collected conditionally, under the patronage of the Synod, in favour of the College of Brunswick, be no longer in force; but that the persons holding any such moneys thus collected, do forthwith remit the same to the Trustees of Queen's College, or pay them to their order."

In pursuance of the request contained in this important document, the Doctor, as soon as he could conveniently, made the necessary arrangements for a removal. The Consistory of the Church consented to what the Synod had proposed, with the understanding, that he should receive, while he rendered them but half the usual service, but half the usual salary, which was certainly a reasonable stipulation; and, to supply the lack of service that would be caused by his removal, in the autumn of 1795, they called the Rev. Mr. Abeel, of Philadelphia, to become one of their pastors. The following spring, he left the city, to occupy a place which he had purchased at Bedford, a little village on Long Island, about two miles from Brooklyn; and here, when fixed in his new residence, he opened his Divinity-Hall with very cheering prospects.

But it must be obvious that, in complying with the wishes of the Synod, he not only sustained a considerable pecuniary loss, as he relinquished a moiety of his regular stipend from the Church, and numerous perquisites, which, as its senior minister, he had been in the habit of receiving, but also subjected himself to no little inconvenience, and, in a measure, exposed his health and life. There were, at that time, no steam-boats moving upon our waters; and the passage between Long Island and New-York, in the boats then in use, was seldom an agreeable, and oft times, especially in the winter season, was a very dangerous one; but he must be every Sabbath, at least once, in his pulpit; and other duties would make it necessary for him frequently to visit the city. In this view, and taking into consideration the fact, that he had nothing to expect from the Synod but their approbation that they could neither make nor promise him any other remuneration, it must be confessed, that he now made sacrifices, and evinced a disinterestedness, a submissive temper, and a regard for the good of the Church at large, which justly entitled him to respect and gratitude.

The great motive to a removal was, the hope of being in this situation, more useful as professor, than he had ever been before: and for a while, the hope was partially realized. Well known as a sound and learned divine having the requisite leisure for the due performance of his duty and the expense of boarding in the country being much less than in the city, the number of students immediately increased, and he was encouraged to believe, that the plan which had been adopted for establishing a theological school, would be crowned with complete success; but his expectations, however warrantable, as founded upon the late act of the Synod, in which that body had displayed a commendable earnestness and zeal in behalf of the professorate, and also, upon the favourable commencement of the enterprise, were soon and suddenly disappointed. The promise of their support and countenance, which had been given by the Synod, was not fulfilled, or rather was hastily, in effect, retracted; and it was not long, as the reader will see presently, after all he had done and encountered himself, to promote the execution of their plan, before he was compelled to abandon it and to return to the city.

It is not material that the manner, in which the Doctor conducted his little seminary, should be here particularly related. It will suffice to observe, that he ably and satisfactorily discharged his whole duty. He taught theology, systematically, in a course of lectures, in which the doctrines of the Reformation unadulterated, were fully discussed and maintained; and he possessed the faculty of imparting his own sound, clear, comprehensive views of divine truth, so as to carry conviction to the understanding, and to make a deep impression upon the heart. The method he adopted to qualify his pupils for the important office they had in view, was highly approved, and his deportment towards them was uniformly pleasant, affectionate, and paternal. They revered and loved him.

The following extracts from two letters to his friend, Dr. R., will show what were his present sentiments and feelings upon the subject of the interesting institution. The first is dated October 13th, 1796: "I wished much to have consulted with you upon the important subject of the professorate, which, notwithstanding all the repeated efforts in its favour, and the prudent and decisive resolutions of the last General Synod, remains wholly neglected and abandoned. I have complied with the wishes of the Synod, in removing from the city, and relinquishing a part of my parochial duties, for the express purpose of having it more in my power to do justice to the young gentlemen. Since I have retired, I find more leisure for that work, and am happy to know, that the students find greater advantages, than it was possible for them while I remained in the city. But, amidst all my exertions, and the sacrifices which I have made to bring it thus far, it is still impossible the institution can ever answer the expectations of the Churches, unless it is patronised and countenanced by the public. Public bodies, who feel an interest in its prosperity, must turn their attention to it, and support it with their influence and smiles, or it will at farthest soon die with the individual."

"Upon taking a candid review of all the embarrassments with which this institution has struggled, and the neglect that has attended it, I have been obliged to conclude, that whatever might have been the serious determination of those of 1771, who formed the union, or of 1784, who instituted the office, it appears, that it is not the present intention of the most of our churches, to have it brought to a proper issue: that as long as I continue, by my private efforts, to supply the public wants, nothing decisive will be done: and that, if it remains dormant much longer, it will sleep the sleep of death, and all our resolutions, our promises to the churches in Holland, and our serious and solemn engagements to our own churches here, will end in disappointment."

"Under these impressions, I conceived it my duty to present to the Synod, a plain statement of facts, to assure them that I was willing to proceed and devote the remains of my short life to this important work, but that I wished for their advice to know what would be the most proper and effectual measures to bring the whole to a decided issue. To this, the Synod have requested me to proceed, in my labours with the students, as heretofore; and have determined that it was incumbent upon them to carry into effect the resolutions of the General Synod, and, for that purpose, have concluded to send circular letters to all the congregations. What the result will be, cannot be foreseen; but it is certain, if our churches entertain a just sense of the necessity of the institution; if they reflect, that it is impossible to be supplied with orthodox and acceptable ministers, unless some establishment is formed for their education; if they do not choose to be beholden to other denominations for the instruction of their candidates; if they wish to adhere to their own discipline, and maintain their reputation and usefulness; and if they consider it ungenerous for a numerous, wealthy, and great community to suffer any individual member to bear the whole weight alone, and that it will be impossible long to sustain the discouragements which arise from public neglect; it will be easy for them to unite their influence and friendly attention, and bring forward a fund that shall suffice to render the Institution independent and respectable."

"For my own part, as it regards myself, I think I have sufficiently proved my disinterestedness. I have been silent, passive, and contented; and I am thus far contented still; but I am convinced, if ever the Institution is to be brought forward, and rendered extensively useful, when you and I are gathered to our fathers, if our children and their posterity are to reap the benefits of it, something decisive and spirited must now be effected."

The second is dated Bedford, April 28th, 1797: "If the issue of the business, respecting the resolutions of the General Synod, be the same in all the Classes, with what you mention to have been in your's of January last, we may readily anticipate that nothing will, in this way, be done; and, perhaps, it is become altogether impracticable, in the present state of the public mind, to raise a fund at all. The want of zeal in promoting a cause so interesting and influential to the welfare, and even existence, of our reformed Churches, is greatly to be lamented, and may constitute a neglect, for which, as a people, we shall be severely responsible. He who walketh in the midst of the golden candlesticks, and holdeth the stars in his right hand, will know and judge, with unerring precision, respecting motives, excuses, and conduct."

"Solemn and repeated resolutions, formed upon mature deliberation and clear conviction, have certainly produced obligations too strong and binding to be now lightly abandoned. Notwithstanding delays and frequent discouragements, we are still bound by every principle sacred to conscience and character, to make the most decisive trials, and not despair of the divine blessing and concurrence upon earnest and faithful efforts. * * * If the plan, in one form, will not at present prevail, is it not possible to devise another mode, in which it may, for some time at least, prove successful? If it be impracticable to raise a whole fund, whose interest would suffice, may it not be easy to obtain, annually, from all the churches, what would amount, at least, to as much as that interest? This, if punctually executed, would serve as a temporary expedient, and leave the fund where it now is, in the possession of the people."

"I have, for some years, considered an alternative as very practicable and, perhaps; proper, but from a determination of remaining as long as possible, passive and silent in all that relates to this business, I do not remember that I have ever communicated it to you. Whether it would be found as easy in its operation, and sufficiently productive as it appears in theory, or whether some consequences would not arise from it, which would prove injurous to the very object in view, I do not know. It is simply this that, instead of collecting a sum which shall amount to a capital, as at present contemplated, we only determine to raise, every year, a small dividend from each congregation, which can be effected without any particular effort on the part of the people, and may, if properly appropriated, in some measure answer the purpose of the Synod."

"Upon contemplating this alternative, I think I find, instead of insuperable objections, something which may, in its consequences, even prove beneficial. It is, indeed, leaving the institution precarious; but it renders it immediately dependent upon those for whose use it is intended, and may prove a proper stimulus to industry and faithfulness. At any rate, I conceive it to be the only mode that is now practicable, and less calculated to cheapen the institution than to raise, by personal applications, a fund. I mention it without reserve now to you, that you may digest it, and make such improvements upon it, as a mature consideration may suggest. May the Lord direct to such measures as shall preserve the engagements of Synod inviolate, and prevent those who have relied upon its sacred honour, and risked every thing upon it, from being made ashamed!"

Whatever solicitude or zeal particular individuals may have manifested, to effect a redemption of the pledge which had been given by the Synod to the professor, and there no doubt were a few who exerted themselves to this end to the utmost of their ability, it is certain, that a very culpable indifference with respect to it, pervaded the Church as a body. Nothing of any consequence was done; and when but little more than a year had elapsed since his removal to Bedford, at the request of the Synod, the Doctor found himself placed very unexpectedly, by another act of Synod, in a situation at once mortifying and embarrassing in no small degree.

The General Synod met again in June, 1797; and the following is a copy of the record of part of their proceedings:

"The General Synod having minutely inquired into the measures pursued time after time, in order to raise a fund for the support of the professorate, and the success of those measures, the following question was taken: Is it expedient, under present circumstances, to take any further measures for the support of the professorate? which was answered in the negative."

"The General Synod then appointed a committee on this business, who brought in a report, which, after being amended, was agreed to, and reads as follows, viz."

"The committee appointed on the professorate, report: that Professor Livingston ought to be immediately informed of the determination of Synod, that it is not expedient under present circumstances, to take any further measures for the support of the professorate; that they express to him the sense which they entertain of the important services which he has already performed; that it will be highly acceptable to them, if he can still continue to discharge the duties of the office under the discouragements that exist; and that a minute of the determination referred to, with this report, be transmitted to him for the purposes above-mentioned."

At this session, the Rev. Dr. T. Romeyn, and the Rev. Solomon Froeligh, were appointed additional professors of theology. These gentlemen had been authorized, at least since the year 1794, to act as assistant teachers of theology, probably at first for the accommodation of young men who could not well afford the expense of boarding in New-York; but their students could not be admitted to an examination for licensure, without having previously obtained the certificate of the regular professor, and to supersede the necessity, which had been often attended with much inconvenience, of applying for such certificates, they were now duly invested with the professoral office.

This measure being adopted by the Synod, which amounted in fact, for a time, to a complete desertion of the seminary, the Doctor, of course, returned to the city, and resumed all his pastoral duties. Such young men as wished to prosecute their studies under his direction, were still cheerfully and faithfully attended to; but, for several succeeding years, he was chiefly devoted to the beloved people of his charge, among whom his labours continued to be acceptable and useful.

No event occurred after this, worthy of particular notice, until the year 1804, when the plan of the professorate underwent another important alteration. The Doctor, meanwhile, as a lover of peace, quietly acquiesced in the arrangements which the Synod had thought proper to make. He showed no resentment. He uttered no complaints; or if any did proceed out of his mouth, it was only among some of his most intimate friends and that any did, even in private intercourse, the writer has never understood. That he considered himself slighted, and that his feelings were deeply wounded by what the Synod had done, it is natural to suppose; but whether such was the case or not, his conduct under it was meek, submissive, dignified: and, indeed, he knew his brethren too well to imagine, for a moment, that they had not honestly consulted the existing state of the Church, in pursuing this course, without intending him an ill requital, or designing to convey by it any unfavourable sentiment with respect to his services.

For Dr. Romeyn, between whom and himself it might have been surmised there would be now some little rivalry, he appears to have cherished undiminished affection: and pleasing evidence of the fact will be found in the following extracts from two letters of friendship to that gentleman, and from one to the son of the same, upon the occasion of his father's death.

In one, dated New-York, August 27th, 1802, after adverting to the late indisposition of his friend, he thus writes: "In every period of life, we are exposed to strokes that may weaken, or even destroy our feeble frames. At the stage to which you and I are arrived, we must not therefore be surprised or discouraged to meet with what others, at a much earlier hour, have had to struggle. I am confident you view the dispensation as you ought, and feel that resignation which is at once an evidence of divine grace in the soul, and a sure source of contentment and peace. To look unto Jesus, to renew the covenant with him, and to know in our blessed experience, that he is made of God unto us, wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, afford substantial comfort in the severest trials, and increase our assurance that he will also to us become redemption. Such views and efforts of faith produce strength equal to our day, and excite at times, a joy unspeakable and full of glory." and he can and will confirm his word, that all things shall work together for good to them who love God; and his people have always put their seal to this precious promise, and, sooner or later, been made to exclaim, it is good for us that we have been afflicted. It must be so. All pains, sickness, disappointments, and trials of every kind, are in themselves bitter, and no chastening for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous; nevertheless afterward, it yieldeth the peaceable fruit of righteousness to them which are exercised thereby. Sanctified afflictions are among the precious benefits of the everlasting covenant. Through all the changing scenes and various ways in which his saints are led, however intricate, gloomy, and unexpected they may prove, he has pledged his truth that he will guide them by his counsel, support them with his grace, and never leave nor forsake them. May you, my dear friend, be comforted with these consolations, and bear constant testimony to the faithfulness and fulness, the love and power of our adorable Redeemer."

"You and I are nearly of the same age; I am in my 57th year. We are thus literally fellow-travellers, engaged together from our youth in one and the same work. It affords high satisfaction to have cause to hope, that we have in our day been of some use in the Church of Christ, and obtained grace to be in our measure faithful to the trust reposed in us. Happy should we be if, in the retrospect, we could find more zeal, purer exertions, in the service of the greatest and best of Masters. The Lord strengthen and sanctify us, that we may continue faithful and useful even to the end of life; that our last fruit may be the ripest; and our setting sun shine bright and serene."

"What the spirit of infidelity may yet produce; with what opposition the disciples of the Lord Jesus will have to combat; and what may be particularly impending over that part of the Church with which we are more immediately connected, are impossible to be foreseen; and it is best that future events should thus far be covered with an impenetrable vail. Enough, however, may be anticipated to prompt to double vigilance, and justify us in recommending vigour and patience, unanimity and fortitude, to our younger brethren, who are to remain as watchmen when we are gone, and are to stand where we stood on the walls of Zion. I trust God will preserve these, and raise up others, who shall with them become faithful witnesses for his truth and cause, and that He will crown their labours with his blessing. At times, I have been greatly discouraged, and from a variety of concurring circumstances, have feared that the blessing we once expected would never be realized, and that the day for effecting any thing important has been suffered to pass unimproved; but I have learned to dispel anxious fears, and patiently to wait and humbly hope in the Lord. In his own time, in his own way, and by his own instruments, he will work all his pleasure, and his poor people who trust in him, shall never be made ashamed. In this confidence, my dear Sir, we may put up our prayers in faith, and rest assured that if we do not, yet our successors will, see the goodness of God to his chosen, and rejoice in his mercies upon Zion."

"Whenever I come in the northern quarter, I promise myself the pleasure of making you a visit; but I have no expectation of being able, during the present season, of going so far from home. In the mean while, let me unite with all your other friends, in recommending great attention, and that you do not, by any undue exertion of mind or body, weaken or injure what yet remains of health. The Lord pitieth them that fear him, for he knoweth our frame. He remembereth that we are dust. Accept of my wishes and prayers, that the Lord may strengthen and continue you still a blessing to his church; that he may comfort you with his presence, and give you great peace and joy in believing; and believe me to be, with sincere respect,
"Reverend and Dear Sir,

"Your affectionate friend,
"And brother in the Lord,

''Rev. Dr. Romeyn."

The other being short, is presented entire.

"New-York, May 31I, 1803.
"Reverend and Dear Sir,

"Frequently since your kind and very acceptable letter came to hand, I have determined to write to you. But whether ordinary duties require more attention than heretofore and press with greater weight; or whether a languor, in the least exertion, marks our advancing years; so it is, that between duties and languor, I neglect what was once my delight, and I have not done what I intended to perform in this instance."

"I wish very much to see you, and hope you will find yourself able to be present with us at the approaching session of the General Synod. We reside at so great a distance apart, that unless we meet upon such occasions, we have little hope of enjoying each others company. The subjects you mentioned in your friendly letter, are very important. They are worthy of our maturest consideration and joint efforts; and I shall be happy to unite with you in promoting the peace and prosperity of our precious Zion."

"Endeavour, my dear brothre, to meet me at Poughkeepsie. Summon up the energy requisite to undertake the journey. The exertion may be of service even to the languid body; and it will, no doubt, refresh your mind. The Lord strengthen and comfort you, preserve you on the way, and render our interview pleasant to ourselves, and profitable to his Church! Accept of my sincere love, and be assured of the respect and esteem with which I am,

"Reverend Sir,
"Your affectionate friend,
"And brother in the Lord,

"Rev. Dr. Romeyn."

The next extract is from his letter to the Rev. Mr. (afterwards Doctor) J. B. Romeyn, upon learning the decease of this gentleman's father.

"New-York, April 26th, 1804.
"Reverend and very dear Sir,

"Yesterday evening your favour came to hand, which announced the departure of your worthy and venerable parent, whom I have been happy to call my friend and brother in the ministry, for many years. Nearly of the same age, we commenced our labours almost at the same time, and have obtained grace to continue longer in the service of our Blessed Master than many others. I went to see him last summer, and was greatly affected to find him so much debilitated, and from the usual progress of paralytic symptoms, did not expect he would ever recover his former strength. I see from the account you give, that he has very gradually declined, and his latter end has been peace. He gently fell asleep, committing his spirit into the hand of his Divine Redeemer. Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord. This proves a source of precious consolation, my dear young friend, to you, while it suggests a powerful argument to follow those, who through faith and patience inherit the promise. You cannot, indeed, mourn as those who have no hope. Adoration and praise unite with grief and resignation; and even this event is within the promise, which engages that all things shall work together for good, for them that love God. The Lord sanctify this new trial, this serious bereavement to you! Your heavenly Father still lives; your precious Jesus, your best friend, has engaged to guide you by his counsel, and afterwards receive you to glory. Let this be your consolation. Let this encourage you to live by faith, to walk with God, and be wholly devoted to his service."

Your very affectionate

It was said that the plan of the professorate was again altered. The General Synod, at their session in this year, viewing the appointment which had been made of two additional professors in 1797, as a temporary expedient designed to meet certain circumstances which then existed, passed this resolution "That the Reformed Dutch Churches will unite their efforts to promote the establishment of only one professor in theology, and will employ vigorous measures to raise a fund for the same; provided, however, that the professors appointed by the General Synod of 1797, continue in their offices, and enjoy all the honours and emoluments thereof, equally with one professor contemplated to be established by this resolution, during their natural lives, or as long as they behave well, and are capable of discharging the duties of their offices, But in either, or in any of these cases, which would vacate their offices, no successor shall be appointed."

Dr. Livingston was now duly chosen the permanent professor, [The General Synod at this Session appointed two professors of the Hebrew language the Rev. John Bassett, and the Rev. Jeremiah Romeyn.] whose temporary seat should be in the city of New- York," subject, however, at all times, to the government of Synod, with respect to a more eligible or expedient place for this purpose," and a committee was appointed to devise ways and means to raise a fund for his support. This act of Synod, which made all the honourable amends then in their power, for any real or supposed injury he had sustained under the other act, though it produced no immediate results of consequence, ultimately led to a separation from his pastoral charge, and to his permanent removal from the city.

The health of the eloquent and eminent Linn, had now become so enfeebled, as to induce him to solicit a dissolution of his connexion with the congregation; and this event, which took place the following spring, increased of course, proportionably, the parochial labours of the Doctor. In some respects, these labours were lighter probably than those of his two younger estimable colleagues; but they were, nevertheless, sufficiently multiplied and difficult of accomplishment for one of his years and constitutional debility; and, in referring to his services at this period, those ought at least to be cursorily noticed which were extra-parochial, for they were not few in number. He was frequently invited to preach, and when disengaged and in health, he frequently did preach, in neighbouring Dutch churches; and upon particular occasions, as the laying of the corner-stone of a new church, or the opening of a new church, for the first time, for public worship, it was in a manner considered his prerogative to officiate. For a series of years, when either the one or the other was to be done in any part of the city, or in any place at a moderate distance from it, he was requested, in deference to his prominence and seniority in the ministry, to perform the service. And it may be questioned, whether any contemporary clergyman in the United States, except a diocesan, had the honour of laying more corner stones of churches, or of opening a greater number of buildings erected for the public worship of God, than Doctor Livingston. Within the period embraced in this chapter, it is believed, that he discharged one or both of these offices in Flatbush and Brooklyn, Long-Island; in Belleville and ****** New-Jersey; in Greenwich and Bloomingdale, when the first churches were erected in these places; in Garden-Street, at the erection of the new building upon the site of the old one; in Franklin-Street and Broom-Street, in the city of New-York.

[The Doctor being the sole pastor at the time, without doubt, opened the North Church, when it was repaired after the war. He also opened the Middle Dutch Church, when that building was put in a state to be used for public worship, and the sermon he preached upon this occasion, was afterwards published. After his removal from New-York, if the writer has been correctly informed, he laid the corner stone of a new Dutch Church in a place called Spotswood, near New Brunswick, and of one in New Brunswick. In the last mentioned, he also preached the introductory sermon.]

The Doctor was by no means an indifferent observer of the events in the world, which, at that day, attracted the notice of all intelligent Christians. He saw distinctly the commencement of a new and glorious epoch in the history of the church; and he took a deep interest in the benevolent and pious efforts which then began to be made in New-York, as well as in most other parts of Protestant Christendom, to extend the kingdom of the Redeemer.

Before the New-York Missionary Society, at annual meetings, he preached two sermons, which being afterwards published one of them in a second edition it is presumed have been generally read, and must be acknowledged to exhibit not only sound and enlarged views upon the subjects discussed in them, but also, a fervent zeal for the increase and success of Missionary operations. The first was preached April the 23d, 1799, on Colossians 3 and xi "Christ is all and in all:" the second April 3d, 1804, on Rev. 14, 67. "And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying, with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come, and worship him that made heaven and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters."

In 1807, the Trustees of Queen's College, having resolved to revive the institution under their care, made a communication to that effect to the General Synod of the Reformed Dutch Church, and solicited their approbation of the measure. The Synod cordially approved of what had been done, in relation to the same communication, by the particular Synod of New-York, to which body it had previously been made, and appointed a Committee to confer with the Committee of the Trustees who were then present, upon the subject. The result of the conference was, the formation of a covenant between the Synod and the Trustees, for the union of the Professorate with the College, the fourth and fifth articles of which were in these words:

"The Trustees of Queen's College shall call no professor of theology, but such as shall be nominated and chosen by the General Synod, agreeably to the resolutions and arrangements formed in General Synod in 1804, respecting the permament professorship, which is hereby located at New-Brunswick."

"As soon as the Trustees shall have obtained a fund, the interest of which will yield a competent support to the theological professor, of which competency, whenever any difficulties or doubts may arise, the contracting parties shall judge and determine, the Trustees shall be bound, without delay, to call the professor appointed by the Synod; and the Synod shall, and hereby do request their professor, as soon as he shall have received such a call, to make arrangements forthwith for entering upon the duties of his office."

An interesting and able address upon the subject of the theological professorate was now drawn up, published, and widely circulated; and, under the divine blessing, it excited in many parts of the Church, great zeal and liberality in behalf of the important object contemplated. In the city of New-York alone, subscriptions to the professoral fund, to the amount of more than ten thousand dollars, were obtained in a few days; and encouraged by this auspicious beginning, the Trustees forthwith made a call upon the Doctor to the professorship of theology, in the institution, tendering him therein, as the yearly compensation for his services, the sum of seven hundred and fifty dollars. They also made a call upon him to the presidency of the College, in which the salary offered was two hundred and fifty dollars per annum.

The first call he accepted; but fearing that if he immediately removed, the efforts of the Churches to provide an adequate fund for the support of the professorate, would abate, he concluded to remain for the present where he was.

About this time, he experienced an increase of infirmities, which was quite alarming. His mind as well as his body, in a measure failed him, and he was sensible that he was not able to discharge, as he formerly had done, his customary ministerial duties. The decline of his health became, indeed, so visible, that the Consistory of the Church considered it their duty to excuse him from a part of his regular ministrations; and they accordingly passed the following resolution, a copy of which they directed to be delivered to him:

"In Consistory, 20th July, 1809.
"The Consistory taking into consideration the long and faithful services of the Rev. Doctor Livingston, their senior minister; and also considering his age, the ill state of his health, and his consequent inability to preach more than once on the Sabbath; therefore resolved unanimously, that this Consistory are willing to dispense with the afternoon public services of the Reverend Doctor Livingston, on the Sabbath, and that he preach every Sabbath morning only, unless he feels able and disposed to perform more service. Ordered, that the Rev. Mr. Kuypers, the President, be requested to deliver a copy of this resolution to the Rev. Doctor Livingston.

"Extract from the Minutes,

"ISAAC L. KIP, Sec."

As the Doctor was now exempted from a portion of his usual labours, and his removal to New-Brunswick was expected to take place at a day, not far distant, the Consistory deemed it expedient to obtain as speedily as possible, a more ample supply of ministerial service. They soon after, therefore, invited the Rev. John Schureman, of Millstone, N. J., and the Rev. Jacob Brodhead, of Rhinebeck, N. Y., to come and serve them in the Gospel. These gentlemen accepted their calls, and were installed collegiate pastors with Dr. Livingston, Dr. Kuypers, and Dr. Abeel, in the autumn of this year.

Reverend Linn

[Dr. Linn, when he found his health was sinking fast, wished to retire, and wrote his venerable colleague the following note upon the subject, dated January 29, 1805.

"My dear Colleague,

"I cannot think of taking a measure extremely interesting to me, without your advice and assistance. The inclemency of the weather, together with my indisposition, prevent me from waiting upon you. I have not been out of the house for more than a week; during which time, my health and spirits have greatly declined.

"I am now fully persuaded, after repeated struggles, that I am not able to perform the duties which the congregation expect from me; and have determined to propose to the Consistory to retire upon such conditions, as shall be mutually deemed just and honourable. I mean to propose none in the first instance; but to go to the country, having no pastoral charge, and preaching occasionally, never relinquishing, while any strength remains, the sacred office to which I have been dedicated.

"You will easily conceive my embarrassing situation, with a young and numerous family; and will feel that tenderness which our holy religion inspires, especially after serving together for above eighteen years, in the Gospel of Jesus Christ. I write with pain. I have delayed this business, though often revolved in my mind. Very lately has my determination been taken, and this is the reason why it has not been sooner communicated to you. The Consistory meet on Thursday next, and on the Thursday following. If any thing be done, it cannot be delayed on account of necessary arrangements. To the will of God, I hope ever to be resigned. The Divine Master who has employed me, and been gracious to me, will provide for me. May you enjoy much of his comfortable presence, and richly share in the blessings of the everlasting covenant. Pray for me.

"I am, my dear colleague, with the highest respect and affection, your friend and brother,
"WILLIAM LINN." Dr. Livingston laid the proposition of his friend before the Consistory.

The Consistory acted upon the occasion with their wonted liberality; and as soon as the spring opened. Dr. Linn removed his family to Albany, where he spent the remainder of his life.

Dr. Linn was a divine of great celebrity. His preaching was uniformly judicious, evangelical, and impressive; but upon particular occasions, his performances were master-pieces of the kind. The interest he took in the party politics of the day, somewhat impaired his popularity towards the close of his ministry, but he still had many warm and excellent friends in the congregation. When he died, the late Dr. J. B. Romeyn, then a minister in Albany, wrote to Dr. Livingston, to inform him of the event, and the receipt of his letter was thus acknowledged

"New-York, January 13th, 180S.
"Reverend and dear Sir,

"This moment your friendly communication is handed to me, and I sit down immediately to thank you for your kind attention. The near connection which has for many years subsisted between Dr. Linn and myself, and the sincere love I cherished for him, from the first day of our acquaintance, render the event you have announced very affecting. Your remarks respecting ministers of the Gospel are just and pious. If such improvements apply to others in younger life, how much more must I feel their force who am several years older than our deceased friend! When your worthy father departed, I felt myself deprived of the dear companions of my youth. Now, in regard to them, I stand alone. I mark the signal, hear the warning voice, and look unto Jesus."

"This is, as you observe, an afflicting providence on many accounts, and cannot fail of being especially so to his bereaved, distressed family.

"With assurances of my respect and love,
"Dear Sir, your most affectionate,
"Rev. Mr. Romeyn."]

Reverend Romeyn

[The Rev. Dr. T. Romeyn was one of the brightest ornaments and most useful ministers of the Dutch Church. In vigour of intellect) learning, piety, and zeal, there were few superior to him and the letters of Dr. L. to him, afford a strong attestation of his eminent worth, and of the great influence which he had in her several assemblies. Of four or five Dr. Westerlo, Dr. Hardenburg, Dr. Meyer, Dr. Romeyn, and Dr. L. whose heads, and hearts, and hands, had been very remarkably united in some of the most important business of the Church, and who had laboured with equal zeal and perseverance to promote her best interests, the latter was now the only one left.

The following tribute of respect to the memory of Dr. Romeyn, is given in a volume of the sermons of his distinguished son, the late Rev. Dr. J. B. Romeyn, of New-York, as an extract from the funeral sermon, preached on the occasion of his death, by his colleague and successor, the late Rev. John H. Mier. (See Vol. I - page 194.)

"The reverend Dr. Romeyn possessed a mind strong and energetic, and more than ordinarily comprehensive, capable of viewing things in their natures, their connexions, their dependencies, and ends. His apprehension was quick, his understanding clear and informed. His judgment was sound and mature, and his memory remarkably retentive. In the application of these powers of mind, he was chiefly bent upon his professional studies. In these he most delighted, and laboured most of all to excel. He was versed in the circles of general science, well read in history, and had made no mean attainments in the philosophy of the human mind."

"In the discharge of his ministerial functions, he proved himself an able minister of the New Testament, a watchman that needed not be ashamed. As he had loved the doctrines of grace, and had experienced their power and influence on his own heart, so also he insisted upon them in his public ministrations. His theme uniformly was Christ and him crucified. His manner was bold, intrepid, and daring. In the execution of his duties he was neither daunted nor moved. He was the Boanerges of the day. When he reproved, the sinner trenmbled. When he pronounced Ebal's curses against the wicked, it was like the thunders of Sinai. He, however, was not incapable of the pathetic. He could, at times, move the heart and melt the audience into tears. His discourses were solid and interesting, oft-times enlivened by historical anecdotes. In the introduction of these, he was peculiarly happy. He always entered deep into his subject. His delivery was animated and unaffected, without ostentation, and becoming his subject. He aimed at nothing but what was perfectly natural."

"In his intercourse with the world, he supported a becoming dignity. Independence of sentiment marked his path through its busy rounds. He knew not how to dissemble. He was polite to all, familiar with few. This rendered the circle of his intimates contracted, and the number of his confidential friends small. In his conversation he was interesting, always instructing. His family in him have lost an affectionate relative, a watchful guardian, and a great example; the church a pillar, and society an ornament."]

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