The Text Content on Page 14 of Oakland Tribune , June 24, 1923 is: OAKLAND TRIBUNE JUNE 24 1923 Madam Xylocopa Virginica Largest of the Pastoral Bees Carves Shapes and Stocks a Breeding Nest in the Heart of a Tree Unaided by Her Vacationing Mate THE nest of the carpenter bee is a of ingenuity Its ar- displays not only the but the mason's the engineer's the and the mathematician's For with the strong sharp teeth upon Us sturdy and three pairs of brushy feet the Xylocopa largest or pastoral bees carves and shapes and stocks for its young a nest an the heart of a tree The honey bee's marvelous care cf its brood is one less degree that shewn by this splendid insect in its tunneled chambers in the unlighted depths cf a forest tree or stump The Xylocapae are the largest most powerful short tongued species of native bees and though their existence has been known for many centuries their solitary habits and rural preferences make them almost strangers among their kindred Beautiful creatures are they of black and velvety gold with creamy white collars and Wings Sweets delectable associate I honey bee's domestic economy consists of a communal household nf n Is a swarming army of female borers from tea to forty thousand strong and an of over- feu drones that are ex- terminated by workers The duties of the hive the the caring the and is an endless round of activity for the inmates but the family is a tary one upon no communal basis Tlie male is a srent handsome noisy fellow that goes ing through sammor when nest is on hand and may or may nor put in an appearance ac at the end of the The female bee hung for warmth and safety in a listless mass of her kind beneath some sheltering branch or board during til wet or cold weather the for a site Unaided by the advise or support of her lant vacationist she spends time jn finding a dry tree trunk or heavy When decided upon her like teeth tear and pnaw away the and soon a hole of about an inch in diameter is into the soft f fee vestibule for several five or six right angles to it the shaft or nest for tha infant and tearing the wood and thrusting the sawdust pellets her as Khc works them with the tufts of hairy growth on her she slowly and from to day through the hot and smothering tunnel until she reaches the end of her line may be or sixteen inches long Joining shaft ii her sh may form branching parallel to and also grain oi tlie wood At tile of tunnel she r r-c M in ii one oval places U a generous ball of bee of the 1 lioney This is for the embryo V when he chamber leaves empty for the young- bee's development and then she adroitly seals it with a round lid molded out of sawdust horsey and saliva iia grows firm and hard in s short time and again the tireless mother forms another tiny cell the first and with an curate count lavs one small ecg T V-r one above other she builds and equips and seals like so many in until she riches the top of her shaft At the end of this exhaustive labor the Xylocopa's energy is de- uves a snort time in some hidden shelter or falls an easy to an ever present enemy When the ess at the top of the tunnel hatches first the larva feeds upon the ball of pollen and honey until it passes through the larval stage and is able to cut its tray through the cemented il as A bee the to and pon air ol freedom jn descending the ar and each l m Hers brief cycle of of cf labor the The nf iiK but of jy her has a When this great blark warlike e-S nf in- iii a hub in hf a diving ft wrath to in The while straight wood of the and long brooding filled in Mages uf rggs order of and because uf its it is must to tlie human 1 Its origin is unknown but was in western Asia Fur years the bee are of in North A and the bee is by four FIGHTING THE RAINBOW Iroin Page 2 are flushed passage is the river by just a piep the river bits and the gophers ji nil species aro big gray rock a farther away in of the arc oic bobcat arid occasional deer of aJI the uttor despoliation of young trout fry and The answer the in light runs of water directly due to this repulsive serpent He is the direct and deciding reason why t J in the never have a chance to it is well known that the artificially raised trout have no real fear of anything and when dumped into the streams on their own resources and lack of attention and feed are at the mercy of any nave a their I n rind n b r snake the season the follow the lines with almost at a dis- a couple of from the shore that is covered with but an or of water whor small these helpless little fellows is cated will become rigid and lying the shore begin to work his body his prey jr off and drive them fih ore wards again where they will about in fear With a ish Hie creature then make a half circle of his the tail slowly moving vard and tho barely til he has the hundreds dreds of fry Impounded The ing dirty back of the just out of the water the tail and begin to compress and tho circle grows by minute de- of movement The fry are not frightened any more the tail Is on and head begins to bond back towards the dic part of tho sickening ling thing now perfected a trap from which not one single fish can body of the moccasin lies to tho bottom the top of his head then slowly enlers thu trap Tho trap then folds tighter of of a meal the crawling creature opens his mouth begins to suck iy young a single action of lulling ing lie a bosc MO last do he fish When tho last fry has hoen taken tho un- satisfied destroyer unwinds his chine of death trap and starts tha Name up will this his is swidlen to twice ltd natural The method employed is tho word waa passed to tile river to swat the water It is that a is to bo inaugurated Scouts Lo help tbo opining vx XL spring The Barter snakes are in small lo is a harmless to tbe ami grower It is a that all sons ol and n and laid upon leaves by iiy and are of filled speeles I o ow fun nd uf are ill almost 0 i n this r il Arch-Enemy oi Our j Forests f TV is burned oni slowly but surely in a by tile Viee rl of rhu ot ind wbai ii means to the is hard I v yet appreciated ber a dug out of and not could be nothing done it plies however js a win Ii call In grown us oi 1 tie is from a f I ioi fires do the arc more ban of in the t port or uf timber which de- i t caused lo y to to h to S t 1.1 ard the prod net ion in c oe o i1 tii freight If had been pi o- I flee III br re labor and n o after jear rani hi is u ri re bi in tii areas on of tiie All of our is not a very of land ran be the and of idle tae of thin ri- of IIP older n it in Ail of this about the a great riot in its RO as in oare land if fire will continue prow of commercial Tlie right of greatly the yield and the profits but tho big factor in the present Is the ana ue bL